What Are Smart Contracts?

Why do you think reams of documentation and human agents will soon be relics when it comes to obtaining mortgages and loans?


Smart contracts are a major component of the Ethereum network and a foundational technology in the blockchain. A smart contract is a self-executing piece of code that executes a series of instructions and then verifies them on the blockchain. These contracts are trusted, autonomous, decentralized, and transparent, and once implemented, they are irrevocable and unmodifiable.

They are widely used in decentralized finance (DeFi), but they also have a variety of other applications. To perform more complicated activities, smart contracts can be integrated into decentralized apps (dApps).


Smart contracts, like traditional contracts, are agreements between two or more parties in which one party makes a valuable offer to another and the offer is accepted. A smart contract, on the other hand, is a self-executing code that carries out the conditions of the agreement.

As a transaction, this code is sent to a blockchain address, where it is verified by the blockchain’s consensus mechanism. The smart contract is started and irreversible once this transaction is included in a block.

Intermediaries and contract enforcement are no longer required with smart contracts. The contract negotiating process is substantially simplified and costs are greatly reduced as a result of this. A smart contract’s code defines the transaction’s processes and serves as the final arbiter of the terms. Smart contracts’ code’s immutability and irreversibility is a strength, but it also has limitations.

There is no method to invalidate or update a smart contract if there is a problem in the code, for example.

Smart contracts are decentralized, autonomous, and transparent. Once deployed, they are likewise irreversible and unmodifiable. This feature has enabled smart contracts to become the foundation for hundreds of decentralized applications (dApps) and a significant focus of blockchain development in general.

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Ethereum: The First Mover

The concept of smart contracts predates blockchain and cryptocurrencies, having been suggested in 1994 by developer Nick Szabo. Although smart contracts became a technological reality with the launch of Bitcoin in 2009, it was the Ethereum protocol that elevated the technology to a basic aspect of blockchain.

While simple smart contracts, such as multisig wallets, are possible on Bitcoin, the more versatile and complex smart contracts that are currently being discussed are primarily found in Ethereum’s rapidly growing ecosystem of decentralized applications (dApps), which make up the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem.

At the same time, numerous other projects are working on Layer-2 solutions to boost Ethereum’s smart contract execution capability.

Increased throughput, cheaper transaction costs, and privacy advancements are all part of these efforts. Several blockchains, like Cardano, EOS, and Chainlink, are aggressively growing smart contract use cases and market share, as well as continuing to develop the technology.

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Smart Contract Use Cases

A single smart contract can only be utilized for one sort of transaction: if one thing occurs, another occurs. Most dApps, on the other hand, rely on smart contracts to provide sophisticated functionality.

Thousands of decentralized applications (dApps) exist across multiple blockchain networks, ranging from finance to gaming, exchanges, and media – all of which use smart contracts in different ways.

Smart contracts in the DeFi sector provide interest on deposits and loans, as well as trading and investing, which are generally only available through traditional financial services firms.

Smart contracts can also be used for trade, inventory tracking, prediction markets and betting, digital identification, legal contracts, online auctions, automated mortgages, and a wide range of other applications.

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Smart Contracts and dApps Are Here to Stay

While smart contract technology is still in its early stages, it has already proven to be extremely useful in numerous aspects of the blockchain and is rapidly evolving.

In the near future, trustless enforcement of contractual obligations completed through the blockchain may become routine, and the need for documentation and middlemen in mortgages, car loans, and other financial instruments may become obsolete.